Types of Infection Test

Infections are from microorganisms, like fungi, parasites, viruses and bacteria. A doctor can identify the type of infection based on the physical examination, person’s symptoms and other risk factors.

The doctor would usually assume that the sickness is because the patient has an infection than think of other sicknesses. For instance, a patient is coughing and currently experiencing breathing difficulties, hence it can be a type of lung infection called pneumonia, but it can be heart problem or asthma too. Through X-ray doctor can assess the real condition of the patient.

After the doctor confirms that it is an infection, he or she should determine the specific microorganism that is triggering the infection. There are a lot of microorganisms around that may cause the infection. Like in pneumonia, it can be cause by bacteria, fungi or viruses. And the medication that should be administered is different depending on the microorganism.

There are many types of tests that can be used to determine the microorganism. Infection test may use sample of sputum, urine, blood or any other tissue or fluid in the patient’s body. The sample can be:

  • Stained and will be examined very closely using a microscope
  • Cultured, where the sample will be placed in a condition that will encourage microorganism’ growth
  • Will be tested for antibodies, that is produced by a patient’s immune system in relation to the microorganism
  • It can be tested for some genetic materials like RNA or DNA, from the microorganism

There is no one test that can identify all microorganisms, a test that may be working well with one microorganism is not an assurance that it will work for the rest. The doctor’s judgement will take in to account, identifying which amongst the microorganism is the cause of the patient’s disorder.

Most of the time, few tests will be ordered, that is most of the time established from the results of the tests previously taken. Each of the tests will narrow down possibilities up until the time the microorganism has been identified. If the test is not appropriate, there is no way a doctor can identify the microorganism that is causing the infection.

Samples challenges

Samples sent through swabs on patient’s throat or nose, stool or sputum, most of the time have bacteria that is not the actual cause of the sickness. Doctor will then determine the bacteria present on the sample, which can be the culprit of the disease.

On the other hand, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and blood, typically should not contain microorganism or bacteria, hence when there is presence of them, abnormality is easily identified.

Once microorganism is known, doctors can start running different tests to identify which amongst the available drugs is best to treat the condition. 



All You Need to Know About T3, T4 and TSH Test

Thyroid and pituitary glands are responsible for producing and organizing the work of a person’s hormones. They are tiny glands but have significant contributions to regulating the body functions.  Thyroid gland is found in the area near the throat, while the pituitary gland is found below the brain.

  • Overview of the test

Each and every thyroid gland related hormone plays an important role in several vital processes such as metabolism, weight control and body temperature, sleeping and heart rate. They also contribute to fertility and reproductive health.  t3 t4 tsh test is essential for examining and evaluating all the functions related to the thyroid. TSH is an abbreviation for thyroid stimulating hormone.  This hormone is produced in the pituitary gland and it makes the thyroid gland release t4 and t3 in the blood stream. T3 stands for triiodothyronine and T4 stands for thyroxine. These 2 hormones are controlling a body’s consumption to energy. This affects almost all the aspects in a person’s body including the mood status and swings. Balanced levels of these hormones guarantee proper body functions. Any sort of imbalance in these levels can negatively affect various body functions.  Disorders in theses hormones can cause weight instability, which means that a patient might gain or lose weight in a sudden and unexplained way.

  • Importance of the test

Examining the levels of T3, T4 and TSH hormones requires separate tests. Usually doctors ask for these tests all together at the same time. A medical care provider will order these tests in case of suspecting hormonal imbalance, which means that glands are producing the hormones in large or insufficient amounts. The test is helpful in detecting and diagnosing serious thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypopituitarism. These disorders are basically associated with specific autoimmune diseases such as Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.   

  • How to prepare for the test

These tests are standard blood tests. This means that a doctor or a lab technician will examine a blood sample that is withdrawn from a patient’s arm vein. There are no specific preparations for these tests, so patients are not supposed to fast before the test. However, patients need to talk to their doctors about all types of medications they are taking, as there are certain medications that are capable of affecting the levels of these hormones. A patient needs to tell the doctor about painkillers and herbal supplements as well. These tests are not considered dangerous, as they are standard blood tests. However, it is normal for some patients to experience some levels of discomfort. Some patients can experience a slight pain from inserting the needle in their arms, while others can get infected. Minor bruising is also a famous and common side effect of these tests.  

  • Interpretations of the results  

Results of t3 t4 tsh test are critical in diagnosing thyroid disorders, determining its cause and way of treatment. It is important to know that pregnancy can affect the levels of these hormones. In many cases, decreased levels of T4 and T3 can indicate certain disorders or problems with the pituitary glands. They can also mean hypothyroidism or malnutrition. On the other hand, high levels of these hormones can be associated with hyperthyroidism or tumors caused by germ cells.  

Why Do You Need Dengue Test?

Dengue fever test is used to know whether an individual who is showing symptoms and signs and was exposed recently has been infested with dengue virus. This type of infection is not easy to diagnose. It required laboratory testing since the same symptoms resemble other diseases, like chikungunya infection. There are two main typed of dengue fever test, and these are antibody tests and molecular testing.

Two types of blood test for Dengue 

Antibody test

This is primarily used in diagnosing recent or current infection. They identify two types of antibodies created by the infected patient in accordance to the infection caused by dengue fever, IgM and IgG. The diagnosis may need combination of both tests since the immune system of the human’s body produces different levels of antibodies throughout the duration of the sickness.

IgM antibodies are highly effective when performed 7 to 10 days, at the least, after being exposed to the virus. The blood level rises for few weeks and will gradually decrease. Few month after, IgM antibodies will fall below level that is detectable.

IgG on the other hand are produced slower in relation to a specific infection. The level will arise typically with an infection that is acute, will stabilise and persists long term. Those who are exposed to Dengue virus before the current infection will keep a level of this antibody in his or her blood that could affect the reading of the result.

Molecular testing

This test can identify dengue virus genetic materials in a patient’s blood just within first week once the symptom, like fever, appear and this test can as well pinpoint which amongst the four serotypes is triggering the infection.

A type of RT-PCR test could identify dengue while the other two viruses that are mosquito borne, chikungunya and Zika, and determine which amongst the three is present. There are only limited laboratories that can perform such test, most of the time public health utilities. Although this testing may not be available in clinics and hospitals, medical practitioners can order it from their local and state public health departments. The result can be provided in four days up to two weeks-time.  

This type of test may not be the best test to take after seven days of being ill as it may not identify the dengue virus.

Dengue can be a deadly disease, yet if treated immediately patient can successfully surpass this sickness. Proper testing is necessary to ensure that the real culprit of the virus will be identified and the result of the test primarily will be used to treat the dengue virus.  

Ferritin Test- Do You Have Enough Iron In Your Body?

What is a ferritin test?

Your body depends on iron in red platelets to convey oxygen to every one of its cells. Without enough iron, your red platelets will be not able supply enough oxygen. An excessive amount of iron isn’t useful for your body either. Both high and low iron levels may demonstrate a genuine basic issue.

In the event that your physician presumes you’re encountering an iron inadequacy or an iron over-burden, they may arrange a ferritin test. This measures the measure of stored iron in your body, which can give your specialist a general idea of your iron levels.

What is ferritin?

Ferritin is different from iron in your body. Rather, ferritin is a protein that stores iron, discharging it when your body needs it. Ferritin as a rule lives in your body’s cells, with almost no circulation in the blood.

Ferritin contains 20 percent iron. Ferritin are normally in the cells of the liver (known as hepatocytes) and immune system (known as reticuloendothelial cells).

Ferritin is put away in the body’s cells until it’s a great opportunity to make more red platelets. The body will flag the cells to discharge ferritin. The ferritin at that point ties to another substance called transferrin.

Transferrin is a protein that joins with ferritin to transport it to where new red platelets are made. Envision transferrin as a committed taxi for iron.

While it’s vital for a man to have typical iron levels, having enough put away iron is imperative as well. In case that a man doesn’t have enough ferritin, iron stores can exhaust rapidly.

Reason behind a ferritin test

If you don’t have enough ferritin in your blood or you have excessively, it can give your specialist signs about your general iron levels. The more ferritin in your blood, the more put away iron your body has.

Low ferritin levels

Your specialist may arrange a ferritin test on the off chance that you have a portion of the accompanying side effects related with low ferritin levels:

  • Unexplained Weariness
  • Endless Migraines
  • Unexplained Shortcoming
  • Ringing In Your Ears
  • Peevishness
  • Leg Torments
  • Shortness Of Breath
  • High Ferritin Levels

You can likewise have high ferritin levels, which can cause upsetting manifestations too. Indications of abundance ferritin include:

  • Stomach Torment
  • Heart Palpitations or Chest Torments
  • Unexplained Shortcoming
  • Joint Torment
  • Unexplained Weakness

Ferritin levels can likewise increment because of harm to your organs, for example, the liver and spleen. The test can likewise be utilized to screen your general wellbeing, especially if you have an iron-related condition that makes you have excessively or too minimal iron in your blood.

How is the ferritin test performed?

The ferritin test requires just a little measure of blood to analyse your ferritin levels precisely. In a few cases, your specialist may approach you not to eat for no less than 12 hours before your blood is drawn.

The test is more exact when it’s performed toward the beginning of the day after you haven’t eaten for some time.


Normal range of ferritin in both men and women are given below:-

  • 20 to 500 nanograms for every milliliter in men
  • 20 to 200 nanograms for each milliliter in ladies

Complete Blood Count Test – For Overall Health Analysis!

The total blood count, or CBC, records various important values. Ordinarily, it incorporates the following:

  1. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
  2. Platelet count
  3. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
  4. White Blood Cell Count (WBC or leukocyte count)
  5. WBC Differential Count
  6. Red Blood Cell Count (RBC or erythrocyte count)
  7. Hematocrit (Hct)
  8. Haemoglobin (Hbg)
  9. Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)
  10. Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Fixation (MCHC)
  11. Red Cell Dissemination Width (RDW)

The complete blood count (CBC) is different from most of the regularly requested blood tests. The entire blood count is the estimation of the cell (framed components) of blood. These estimations are for the most part dictated by equipment that examine the diverse segments of blood in a short period of time.

Complete blood count is the measure of the convergence of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood. This test is performed by acquiring a few drops of blood of the patient.


The skin is wiped clean with alcohol, and a needle is embedded through the region of washed down skin into to patient’s vein. The blood is pulled from the needle by a syringe.

The values for an entire blood count (CBC) are the following:-

  • White Blood Cell Count (WBC) is the amount of WBCs in a volume of blood. Typical range is from 4,300 and 10,800 cells for each cubic millimetre (cmm). This can likewise be considered to as the leukocyte count and can be communicated in universal units as 4.3 to 10.8 x 109 cells for each litre.
  • White Blood Cell (WBC) Differential Count– The cells in a differential count are granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
  • Red Cell Count (RBC) means the quantity of red blood cells in a volume of blood. Typical range fluctuates for the most part from 4.2 to 5.9 million cells/cmm. This can likewise be considered as the erythrocyte count and can be communicated in universal units as 4.2 to 5.9 x 1012 cells for each litre.
  • Haemoglobin (Hb) is the measure of Haemoglobin in a volume of blood. Haemoglobin is the protein atom inside red blood cells that conveys oxygen and gives blood its red color.

Typical range for Haemoglobin is diverse between the genders and is around 13 to 17.5 grams for each deciliter for men and 12 to 15.5 for ladies (worldwide units 8.1 to 11.2 millimoles/liter for men, 7.4 to 9.9 for ladies).

  • Hematocrit (Hct) is the proportion of the volume of red cells to the volume of entire blood. Typical range for hematocrit is diverse between the genders and is roughly 45% to half for men and 37% to 45% for ladies.
  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the normal volume of a red blood cell. This is a computed esteem got from the hematocrit and red cell count. Ordinary range may fall between 80 to 100 femtoliters.
  • Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) is the normal measure of haemoglobin in the normal red cell. This is aan ascertained esteem got from the estimation of haemoglobin and the red cell count. Ordinary range is 27 to 32 picograms.
  • Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the blend of haemoglobin with a given volume of red cells. This is an ascertained volume got from the haemoglobin estimation and the haematocrit. Typical range is 32% to 36%.
  • Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is an estimation of the inconstancy of red cell size and shape. Ordinary range is 11 to 15.
  • Platelet count- The quantity of platelets in a predetermined volume of blood. Platelets are not complete cells, but rather really pieces of cytoplasm found in the bone marrow called a megakaryocyte.
  • Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is the normal size of platelets in a volume of blood.

Dengue Fever Blood Test – For Detecting the Dengue Virus

Dengue fever blood test is done to diagnose and screen dengue. Indications, which for the most part start four to six days after disease and keep going for up to 10 days, may incorporate-

  • Sudden, high fever
  • Severe migraines
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Severe joint and muscle torment
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Skin rash, which may go on for two to five days after the beginning of fever
  • Mild bleeding (such a nose drain, draining gums, or simple wounding)

Initially, manifestations are gentle and can be confused for those of this season’s cold virus or another viral contamination. More teenagers and individuals who have never had the disease have a tendency to have milder cases than more seasoned teenagers and grown-ups.

Dengue fever blood test is very important as this problem can create many issues. It includes high fever, harm to lymph and veins, seeping from the nose and gums, swelling of the liver, and problem in the circulatory framework. The side effects may advance to excessive bleeding, stun, and demise. This is called dengue stun disorder (DSS).

Individuals with debilitated resistant frameworks and additionally those with a moment or consequent dengue contamination are accepted to be at more serious hazard for creating dengue haemorrhagic fever.

Diagnosing with Dengue fever blood test

Dengue fever blood test is utilized to decide if a man with side effects and late potential presentation to dengue has been tainted. The contamination is hard to analyse without research facility tests since side effects may at first look like different sicknesses, for example, jungle fever. Two kinds of testing are accessible:

Antibody tests- These tests are essentially used to help analyse a present or late contamination. They distinguish two distinct classes of antibodies created by the body in light of a dengue fever infection, IgG and IgM.

Analysis may require a mix of these tests in light of the fact that the body’s resistant framework (immune system) produces fluctuating levels of antibodies through the span of the disease.

IgM antibodies are delivered first and tests for these are best when performed no less than 7-10 days after presentation. Levels in the blood ascend for fourteen days, at that point step by step diminish. Following a couple of months, IgM antibodies fall beneath distinguishable levels. IgG antibodies are delivered all the more gradually in light of a disease.

Regularly, the level ascents with an intense contamination, balances out, and afterward continues for long duration of time. People who have been presented to the infection preceding the present infection keep up a level of IgG antibodies in the blood that can influence the conversion of demonstrative outcomes.

Atomic testing (polymerase chain response, PCR)- This sort of Dengue fever blood test distinguishes the hereditary material of the dengue infection in blood up to 5 days after side effect beginning (fever).

Leukemia Test: What is Its Importance and Major Types?

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that affects blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow and lymphatic system. Leukemia forms are of various types. Some of the types are common in children while many other types are more likely affect adults. Leukemia involves white blood cells that are known to fight against a plethora of infections. Patients suffering from Leukemia produce white blood cells that function abnormally. Leukemia test and treatment can be complicated, depending on the type of leukemia and other factors.

What are the symptoms of Leukemia?

Some of the common symptoms of Leukaemia include –

  • Persistent weakness and fatigue.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Loss of appetite and weight.
  • Excessive sweating, particularly during the night.
  • Pain in bones or tenderness.
  • Easy bruising and bleeding.
  • Frequent or severe infections.
  • Rashes or red spots on the skin.

The symptoms are vague and not much specific. These symptoms resemble the signs of a regular cough and cold or flu. Therefore, a person experiencing any of the symptoms is advised to get a leukemia test done immediately.

What are types of Leukemia?

The major leukemia types are –

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) – It is the most common type of leukemia that is chronic in nature.
  • Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – This type of leukemia in common in children.
  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) – This can occur both in children and adults.
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) – A person suffering from CML experiences few or no symptoms for months, or year till the leukemia cells grow rapidly.

Some of the other major types are Myelodysplastic syndromes, Hairy cell leukemia, and myeloproliferative disorders.

What the types of risk factors include?

Major factors that can increase the risk of developing leukemia include –

  • If one had undergone previous cancer treatment.
  • If the patient is suffering from genetic disorders.
  • If the patient is exposed to certain types of chemicals such as Benzene that are found in gasoline.
  • If the person has a family history of leukemia.

What are the tests and diagnosis options?

Leukemia test includes – physical examinations, blood tests, and bone marrow tests. The patient can also opt for some of the other additional diagnostic tests that are helpful in determining the type of Leukemia one is suffering. The tests can be classified the Leukemia types and indicate the severity of the disease. These also help the doctor to determine the type and make a treatment plan.