Category Archives: Test

Leukemia Test: What is Its Importance and Major Types?

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that affects blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow and lymphatic system. Leukemia forms are of various types. Some of the types are common in children while many other types are more likely affect adults. Leukemia involves white blood cells that are known to fight against a plethora of infections. Patients suffering from Leukemia produce white blood cells that function abnormally. Leukemia test and treatment can be complicated, depending on the type of leukemia and other factors.

What are the symptoms of Leukemia?

Some of the common symptoms of Leukaemia include –

  • Persistent weakness and fatigue.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Loss of appetite and weight.
  • Excessive sweating, particularly during the night.
  • Pain in bones or tenderness.
  • Easy bruising and bleeding.
  • Frequent or severe infections.
  • Rashes or red spots on the skin.

The symptoms are vague and not much specific. These symptoms resemble the signs of a regular cough and cold or flu. Therefore, a person experiencing any of the symptoms is advised to get a leukemia test done immediately.

What are types of Leukemia?

The major leukemia types are –

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) – It is the most common type of leukemia that is chronic in nature.
  • Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – This type of leukemia in common in children.
  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) – This can occur both in children and adults.
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) – A person suffering from CML experiences few or no symptoms for months, or year till the leukemia cells grow rapidly.

Some of the other major types are Myelodysplastic syndromes, Hairy cell leukemia, and myeloproliferative disorders.

What the types of risk factors include?

Major factors that can increase the risk of developing leukemia include –

  • If one had undergone previous cancer treatment.
  • If the patient is suffering from genetic disorders.
  • If the patient is exposed to certain types of chemicals such as Benzene that are found in gasoline.
  • If the person has a family history of leukemia.

What are the tests and diagnosis options?

Leukemia test includes – physical examinations, blood tests, and bone marrow tests. The patient can also opt for some of the other additional diagnostic tests that are helpful in determining the type of Leukemia one is suffering. The tests can be classified the Leukemia types and indicate the severity of the disease. These also help the doctor to determine the type and make a treatment plan.

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Importance of a Complete Blood Count Test (CBC Test)

Complete blood count or as popularly known as the CBC test is a combination of tests that help in the identification of a plethora of ailments including infections, conditions, and diseases. The compound test focuses on acquiring a multitude of health information from blood samples procured for testing and analysis.

A CBC test alone has the prowess of comprehending information about almost all components present in the blood – the red blood cells, while blood cells, platelets, and plasma. An increase or decrease in the amount of any of these components indicates the existence of a problem in the human system. A CBC test may be recommended by a physician to detect some specific ailment or as a routine check-up procedure. The main purpose is to ascertain that whatever is happening inside – in the cells, tissues, and organs, is happening smoothly.

Overall Health Status

Since a CBC test maps all the components of the blood, it means that it, in a way, gives us an overall view of the health of an individual. A person need not be sick to undergo this test. The procedure, in fact, is a smart way for people to know about their blood’s vitality, count levels and even come across possible points of weaknesses that can turn fatal at a later stage.

Useful in Blood Transfusion

CBC test is widely used as one of the main tools for determining the ability of an individual to undergo a blood transfusion. In addition to this, it also offers information about the blood type, Rh factor and other vital elements that are mapped before the blood transfusion process.

Screening for Disease

The test is highly useful in confirming or ruling out a medical condition. For instance, a platelet count can help indicate whether or not it’s in its normal range of not. For lesser or higher than usual platelets indicate chronic conditions.

Monitoring effects of Drugs on Blood

This is yet another area where a CBC test serves handy and useful. There are a broad range of drugs that are known for causing internal problems, if not taken in proper dosage. For mapping proper working of such drugs, this test is recommended. In the event of abnormalities detected in CBC report(s), either the dosage of the drugs are altered or are changed completely, to reduce damage.

Blood Cell Count

Each blood component count is essential to determine whether they are in their normal range or not. A deviation of any of these can or may cause the onset of many diseases, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis, etc.

Breast Cancer Test for Genetic: What are The Types of Blood Markers?

Breast cancers in women and have become very common nowadays. Though there is a host of factors that lead to breast cancer but the most common is the ‘Genetic Factor’. Researchers have witnessed that be it is breast cancer or ovarian cancer; heredity has a major role to play in this. Most of the inherited incidents of breast cancer are associated with two types of abnormal genes – Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA 1) and Breast Cancer Gene 2 (BRCA 2). Women who inherit a mutation in either of the genes from their parents are at an increased risk of developing cancer in the breasts. A breast cancer test for genetic involves blood test for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

For diagnosis, doctors usually order a special type of blood test known as Blood Marker Test. Protein and Circulating tumour cells are the two types of protein markers that are measured. Blood marker tests are performed before the treatment and help to diagnose breast cancer. It assesses whether the cancer is responding during and after the treatment. Breast cancer test cost can be expensive depending on the type of genetic test and involves minimal or no risk.

Types of Blood Markers

There are several types of breast cancer testing guidelines that doctors usually follow. Along with the guidelines, they also use various types of blood markers. The 5 most commonly used blood markers include –

  • CA 15.3 – This test is performed to examine Breast and Ovarian cancers.
  • TRU-QUANT and CA 27.29 – It is performed when the doctors become almost 90% sure that breast cancer is present.
  • CA 125 – This test helps to determine the presence of ovarian cancer, breast, and ovarian can recurrence.
  • CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) – It is a type of marker that detects the presence of colon, lungs and liver cancers. It also determines if the breast cancer cells have travelled to other parts of the body.
  • Circulating tumour cells – Circulating tumour cells break off from cancer and travel to the bloodstream. High circulating tumour cells counts indicate that the cancer cells are gradually spreading to other parts of the body.

Prevention 

If one has already suffered from this fatal disease and tends to develop BRCA mutation, it means that the patient is at a greater risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer in future. Some types of preventive measures that one should opt for are –

  • Performing preventive or prophylactic mastectomy or removal of both the breasts. This process reduces the risk of breast cancer to about 90%.
  • Performing preventive or prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy or removal of both the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Taking hormonal therapy medicines. These drugs lower the risk of breast cancer in women.

All You Need To Know About Serum Blood Test

Albumin is a protein produced by the liver that carries vital nutrients and hormones and circulates them to different organs and tissues of the body. This type of protein is extremely essential to maintain the growth and repair the tissues. If a person has low albumin content and suffers from various symptoms alike- fatigue, unexpected weight loss, swelling around eyes, stomach, legs, etc. it is highly suggested to get a Serum Albumin Test or Serum blood test done at the earliest. Every diagnostic center in Kolkata is highly equipped with all sorts of modern machines and equipment that help to churn out 100 percent accurate test results.

Why to perform a Serum blood test?

A serum blood test measures the amount of albumin present in the blood. An abnormal level of albumin indicates that the kidneys or the liver are not functioning properly. The test is used as part of an examination called liver panel and checks for the presence of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and pre-albumin in the blood. The test is ordered when the doctor suspects a particular health condition that is affecting the functioning of the liver.

How to prepare for the test?

There is no special preparation for a serum albumin test. However, it is important to consult with the doctor if one is under medications like anabolic steroids, insulin and growth hormones. The doctor might suggest to stop or change the dosage of the medicines before the test.

Serum blood test for pregnancy

Serum blood test for pregnancy measures the presence of chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg) hormone in the blood sample of the mother.

How are serum blood test results interpreted?

Serum blood test normal value ranges vary slightly among different laboratories. Typically, the value for serum blood test varies between 3.4to 5.4g/dl. The test usually comprises of a series of tests that evaluates the functioning of liver and kidneys. Therefore, a doctor looks at the entire test results, determine the underlying cause of the symptoms as mentioned earlier and then make the accurate diagnosis. The normal values of various components present in Serum blood test involve-

  • Creatinine- 0.8 to 1.3 mg/dl
  • Blood urea nitrogen- 8-21 mg/dl
  • Ferritin- 1300 ng/mL in men, 12-150 NG/ml in Women.
  • Glucose- 65-110 mg/dl.

A low level of albumin content in the blood indicates a number of serious health conditions such as- lover disease, inflammation, shock, malnutrition, Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, etc. If the serum blood test results show a low level of albumin content in the blood due to liver diseases, the doctor may order some additional tests to determine the particular type of liver diseases such as- hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular necrosis.

Leukemia Test – Types, Symptoms and Tests Involved

Leukemia is a type of cancer that typically begins when the blood cells of the body turn hostile or malignant in nature. When an individual is detected with leukemia, his/her body’s bone marrow starts to produce abnormal white blood cells called the leukemia cells. These abnormal cells disrupt the normal functionality of the WBCs, grow at a much faster rate and outnumber the normal blood cells. This leads to the development of many serious problems in the body including anemia, bleeding and related infections. Abnormal leukemia cells, over the time, spread to other parts of the body and lead to failure of organs as well. A leukemia test aids in diagnosing the presence of malignancies and also the stage of cancer.

Types of Leukemia

Typically there are four main types of leukemia. These are as follows:-

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Apart from these, other or rather rarer types of leukemia include myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative disorders, and hairy cell leukemia.

Symptoms of Leukemia

Symptoms of leukemia vary from one person to another and also the type of leukemia one has developed. However, common signs and symptoms are as follows:-

  • Chills or fever
  • Persistent weakness and fatigue
  • Frequent or severe infections
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Swollen lymph nodes or spleen
  • Enlarged liver
  • Unexpected bleeding or bruising
  • Recurring nose bleeding
  • Appearing of tiny red spots on the skin
  • Excessive sweating especially at night
  • Tenderness or pain in the bones

Leukemia Test

Most physicians are able to detect leukemia with a regular or routine blood test even before the patient starts to witness its symptoms. However, there are cases wherein physicians may have to order a series of tests for checking the presence of the cancer type.

  • Physical examination – This involves looking for physical signs of leukemia such as swelling of the lymph nodes, enlarged liver, appearance of tiny red spots on the skin, etc.
  • Blood Test – This involves sending a sample of the patient’s blood to the laboratory for the detection of presence of malignancies, or abnormal WBCs or platelets therein.
  • Bone Marrow Test – Here, a sample of the bone marrow is extracted using a long, thin needle. The sample is then sent to the lab for biopsy and detection for existence of malignant cells there.

Leukemia test results are generally out for a physician’s analysis in about 24 hours from the time of submission of the testing sample to the laboratory.

Leukemia Test Online

Today, most pathology labs and diagnostic center in Jaipur and other cities across India offer the advantage of booking a leukemia test online. This enables the working class to keep pace with their help despite their busy life schedule. Leukemia test cost is minimal. But, its cost may vary from one pathology lab to another due to the use of different testing equipment and techniques.

Blood test and Urine test for Pregnancy

Missed your periods? Maybe it’s a sign that you’re pregnant. But how to be sure? Opt for a pregnancy test. A pregnancy test has been formulated by the medical science to confirm or deny pregnancy in a woman by checking the presence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hGC) in blood or urine. A type of hormone, hCG is produced immediately after an egg fertilizes and sticks to the walls of a woman’s uterus. Both, the blood and the urine test are ordered by medical centres and pathology labs in India.

Types of Pregnancy Tests

As stated above, primarily there are two kinds of tests that aid in confirming or ruling out pregnancy. These are as follows:-

  • Urine Test for Pregnancy

A urine test can be done at the comfort of your home with the help of readily available pregnancy testing kits. These kits come with instructions. To detail a bit, a urine test procedure for pregnancy must be done early in the morning as it’s suggest that the level of hCG in urine is highest at that time. Collect a small sample of your urine in a container and use the drop stick provided in the kit for pouring a few drops of urine onto the testing stip. A quick color change or appearance of strips can indicate a positive or negative results.

  • Blood test for Pregnancy

A blood test is done at a pathology lab or at your doctor’s office. For this test, a small amount of blood is drawn from one of the veins and collected in special blood sample tubes. The blood is then tested for the presence of hCG hormone that’s an indicator of the onset of pregnancy.

Accuracy of Pregnancy Tests

As a general fact, you must test for pregnancy after at least one week post a missed period. Results are also said to be more accurate when done early (first thing) in the morning, when your urine is more concentrated. A urine test for pregnancy promises 99% accurate results. While on the other hand, blood tests are even more precise.

How accurate your urine test is depends on many factors:-

  • Did you follow the instructions mentioned on the urine test kit carefully?
  • When do you ovulate in your menstrual cycle and how soon implantation occurs in your uterus
  • How soon you test for pregnancy after a missed period
  • The sensitivity of the pregnancy urine test

Each of these play a vital role in determining the case and flourishing the news of pregnancy. If you think you are pregnant, its best to take a test at your doctor’s clinic under his/her guidance as the chances of making mistakes minimalizes.

Karyotype Test – An Effective Chromosome Analysis Tool

A karyotype test is a simple blood test done to examine the shape, size and number of chromosomes present in the cells of the blood. Abnormal positioning, extra or missing chromosomes can widely affect the growth, development and functionality of many body parts. Karyotypes are typically extracted from blood cells, fetal skin cells or the bone marrow cells.

Why is karyotype test done?

The reasons behind karyotyping are plethora. Some of them are as follows:-

  • To check whether the chromosomes of an individual have a change which can be passed to his/her child.
  • To check whether a defect in a chromosome is prevent a woman from conceiving.
  • To check for the presence of a chromosome defect in a fetus
  • To check for the reasons behind defect in a baby’s growth and development.
  • Determine the right treatment for certain types of cancers.
  • For identifying the sex of an unborn baby.

How is it done?

A karyotype test can be done using almost any cell or tissue of the body. However, in most cases, a sample of blood is taken from the vein for testing. In case of pregnancy, a sample of amniotic fluid or that of placenta may be extracted for examination.

Blood Sample from Vein – In this case, a sample of blood is drawn from one of the veins of the body, usually those on the arm. The sample is collected in special tubes which are then sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

Cell Sample from Fetus – In this type of karyotype test, a few cells are extracted from the fetus with the help of amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling method. These are then sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

Cell Sample from Bone Marrow – A bone marrow biopsy is conducted to extract a sample of bone marrow for karyotype testing. Similar to the above two methods, the sample is sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

How to Interpret the Results?

Interpreting karyotype test results is simple and easy. In case of normal results, the following may be noted:-

  • Females – 44 autosomes along with 2 sex chromosomes marked as XX. A total of 46 chromosomes (XX)
  • Males – 44 autosomes along with 2 sex chromosomes marked as XY. A total of 46 chromosomes (XY)

Any deviation from the above mentioned normal range indicated the presence of abnormality. This means:-

  • More than or less than 46 chromosomes.
  • Abnormal shape or size of one of more than one chromosome
  • A pair of chromosome is either broken or separated in an inappropriate manner.
  • The presence of some kind of genetic syndrome or condition such as
    • Down syndrome
    • Klinefelter syndrome
    • Philadelphia chromosome
    • Trisomy 18
    • Turner syndrome

In addition to this, chemotherapy can cause the chromosome to break down which in turn may affect the result of a karyotype test.