Category Archives: Test

Types of Infection Test

Infections are from microorganisms, like fungi, parasites, viruses and bacteria. A doctor can identify the type of infection based on the physical examination, person’s symptoms and other risk factors.

The doctor would usually assume that the sickness is because the patient has an infection than think of other sicknesses. For instance, a patient is coughing and currently experiencing breathing difficulties, hence it can be a type of lung infection called pneumonia, but it can be heart problem or asthma too. Through X-ray doctor can assess the real condition of the patient.

After the doctor confirms that it is an infection, he or she should determine the specific microorganism that is triggering the infection. There are a lot of microorganisms around that may cause the infection. Like in pneumonia, it can be cause by bacteria, fungi or viruses. And the medication that should be administered is different depending on the microorganism.

There are many types of tests that can be used to determine the microorganism. Infection test may use sample of sputum, urine, blood or any other tissue or fluid in the patient’s body. The sample can be:

  • Stained and will be examined very closely using a microscope
  • Cultured, where the sample will be placed in a condition that will encourage microorganism’ growth
  • Will be tested for antibodies, that is produced by a patient’s immune system in relation to the microorganism
  • It can be tested for some genetic materials like RNA or DNA, from the microorganism

There is no one test that can identify all microorganisms, a test that may be working well with one microorganism is not an assurance that it will work for the rest. The doctor’s judgement will take in to account, identifying which amongst the microorganism is the cause of the patient’s disorder.

Most of the time, few tests will be ordered, that is most of the time established from the results of the tests previously taken. Each of the tests will narrow down possibilities up until the time the microorganism has been identified. If the test is not appropriate, there is no way a doctor can identify the microorganism that is causing the infection.

Samples challenges

Samples sent through swabs on patient’s throat or nose, stool or sputum, most of the time have bacteria that is not the actual cause of the sickness. Doctor will then determine the bacteria present on the sample, which can be the culprit of the disease.

On the other hand, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and blood, typically should not contain microorganism or bacteria, hence when there is presence of them, abnormality is easily identified.

Once microorganism is known, doctors can start running different tests to identify which amongst the available drugs is best to treat the condition. 



All You Need to Know About T3, T4 and TSH Test

Thyroid and pituitary glands are responsible for producing and organizing the work of a person’s hormones. They are tiny glands but have significant contributions to regulating the body functions.  Thyroid gland is found in the area near the throat, while the pituitary gland is found below the brain.

  • Overview of the test

Each and every thyroid gland related hormone plays an important role in several vital processes such as metabolism, weight control and body temperature, sleeping and heart rate. They also contribute to fertility and reproductive health.  t3 t4 tsh test is essential for examining and evaluating all the functions related to the thyroid. TSH is an abbreviation for thyroid stimulating hormone.  This hormone is produced in the pituitary gland and it makes the thyroid gland release t4 and t3 in the blood stream. T3 stands for triiodothyronine and T4 stands for thyroxine. These 2 hormones are controlling a body’s consumption to energy. This affects almost all the aspects in a person’s body including the mood status and swings. Balanced levels of these hormones guarantee proper body functions. Any sort of imbalance in these levels can negatively affect various body functions.  Disorders in theses hormones can cause weight instability, which means that a patient might gain or lose weight in a sudden and unexplained way.

  • Importance of the test

Examining the levels of T3, T4 and TSH hormones requires separate tests. Usually doctors ask for these tests all together at the same time. A medical care provider will order these tests in case of suspecting hormonal imbalance, which means that glands are producing the hormones in large or insufficient amounts. The test is helpful in detecting and diagnosing serious thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypopituitarism. These disorders are basically associated with specific autoimmune diseases such as Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.   

  • How to prepare for the test

These tests are standard blood tests. This means that a doctor or a lab technician will examine a blood sample that is withdrawn from a patient’s arm vein. There are no specific preparations for these tests, so patients are not supposed to fast before the test. However, patients need to talk to their doctors about all types of medications they are taking, as there are certain medications that are capable of affecting the levels of these hormones. A patient needs to tell the doctor about painkillers and herbal supplements as well. These tests are not considered dangerous, as they are standard blood tests. However, it is normal for some patients to experience some levels of discomfort. Some patients can experience a slight pain from inserting the needle in their arms, while others can get infected. Minor bruising is also a famous and common side effect of these tests.  

  • Interpretations of the results  

Results of t3 t4 tsh test are critical in diagnosing thyroid disorders, determining its cause and way of treatment. It is important to know that pregnancy can affect the levels of these hormones. In many cases, decreased levels of T4 and T3 can indicate certain disorders or problems with the pituitary glands. They can also mean hypothyroidism or malnutrition. On the other hand, high levels of these hormones can be associated with hyperthyroidism or tumors caused by germ cells.  

Complete Blood Count Test – For Overall Health Analysis!

The total blood count, or CBC, records various important values. Ordinarily, it incorporates the following:

  1. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
  2. Platelet count
  3. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
  4. White Blood Cell Count (WBC or leukocyte count)
  5. WBC Differential Count
  6. Red Blood Cell Count (RBC or erythrocyte count)
  7. Hematocrit (Hct)
  8. Haemoglobin (Hbg)
  9. Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)
  10. Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Fixation (MCHC)
  11. Red Cell Dissemination Width (RDW)

The complete blood count (CBC) is different from most of the regularly requested blood tests. The entire blood count is the estimation of the cell (framed components) of blood. These estimations are for the most part dictated by equipment that examine the diverse segments of blood in a short period of time.

Complete blood count is the measure of the convergence of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood. This test is performed by acquiring a few drops of blood of the patient.


The skin is wiped clean with alcohol, and a needle is embedded through the region of washed down skin into to patient’s vein. The blood is pulled from the needle by a syringe.

The values for an entire blood count (CBC) are the following:-

  • White Blood Cell Count (WBC) is the amount of WBCs in a volume of blood. Typical range is from 4,300 and 10,800 cells for each cubic millimetre (cmm). This can likewise be considered to as the leukocyte count and can be communicated in universal units as 4.3 to 10.8 x 109 cells for each litre.
  • White Blood Cell (WBC) Differential Count– The cells in a differential count are granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
  • Red Cell Count (RBC) means the quantity of red blood cells in a volume of blood. Typical range fluctuates for the most part from 4.2 to 5.9 million cells/cmm. This can likewise be considered as the erythrocyte count and can be communicated in universal units as 4.2 to 5.9 x 1012 cells for each litre.
  • Haemoglobin (Hb) is the measure of Haemoglobin in a volume of blood. Haemoglobin is the protein atom inside red blood cells that conveys oxygen and gives blood its red color.

Typical range for Haemoglobin is diverse between the genders and is around 13 to 17.5 grams for each deciliter for men and 12 to 15.5 for ladies (worldwide units 8.1 to 11.2 millimoles/liter for men, 7.4 to 9.9 for ladies).

  • Hematocrit (Hct) is the proportion of the volume of red cells to the volume of entire blood. Typical range for hematocrit is diverse between the genders and is roughly 45% to half for men and 37% to 45% for ladies.
  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the normal volume of a red blood cell. This is a computed esteem got from the hematocrit and red cell count. Ordinary range may fall between 80 to 100 femtoliters.
  • Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) is the normal measure of haemoglobin in the normal red cell. This is aan ascertained esteem got from the estimation of haemoglobin and the red cell count. Ordinary range is 27 to 32 picograms.
  • Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is the blend of haemoglobin with a given volume of red cells. This is an ascertained volume got from the haemoglobin estimation and the haematocrit. Typical range is 32% to 36%.
  • Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is an estimation of the inconstancy of red cell size and shape. Ordinary range is 11 to 15.
  • Platelet count- The quantity of platelets in a predetermined volume of blood. Platelets are not complete cells, but rather really pieces of cytoplasm found in the bone marrow called a megakaryocyte.
  • Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is the normal size of platelets in a volume of blood.

Leukemia Test: What is Its Importance and Major Types?

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that affects blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow and lymphatic system. Leukemia forms are of various types. Some of the types are common in children while many other types are more likely affect adults. Leukemia involves white blood cells that are known to fight against a plethora of infections. Patients suffering from Leukemia produce white blood cells that function abnormally. Leukemia test and treatment can be complicated, depending on the type of leukemia and other factors.

What are the symptoms of Leukemia?

Some of the common symptoms of Leukaemia include –

  • Persistent weakness and fatigue.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Loss of appetite and weight.
  • Excessive sweating, particularly during the night.
  • Pain in bones or tenderness.
  • Easy bruising and bleeding.
  • Frequent or severe infections.
  • Rashes or red spots on the skin.

The symptoms are vague and not much specific. These symptoms resemble the signs of a regular cough and cold or flu. Therefore, a person experiencing any of the symptoms is advised to get a leukemia test done immediately.

What are types of Leukemia?

The major leukemia types are –

  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) – It is the most common type of leukemia that is chronic in nature.
  • Acute Lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – This type of leukemia in common in children.
  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) – This can occur both in children and adults.
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) – A person suffering from CML experiences few or no symptoms for months, or year till the leukemia cells grow rapidly.

Some of the other major types are Myelodysplastic syndromes, Hairy cell leukemia, and myeloproliferative disorders.

What the types of risk factors include?

Major factors that can increase the risk of developing leukemia include –

  • If one had undergone previous cancer treatment.
  • If the patient is suffering from genetic disorders.
  • If the patient is exposed to certain types of chemicals such as Benzene that are found in gasoline.
  • If the person has a family history of leukemia.

What are the tests and diagnosis options?

Leukemia test includes – physical examinations, blood tests, and bone marrow tests. The patient can also opt for some of the other additional diagnostic tests that are helpful in determining the type of Leukemia one is suffering. The tests can be classified the Leukemia types and indicate the severity of the disease. These also help the doctor to determine the type and make a treatment plan.

Importance of a Complete Blood Count Test (CBC Test)

Complete blood count or as popularly known as the CBC test is a combination of tests that help in the identification of a plethora of ailments including infections, conditions, and diseases. The compound test focuses on acquiring a multitude of health information from blood samples procured for testing and analysis.

A CBC test alone has the prowess of comprehending information about almost all components present in the blood – the red blood cells, while blood cells, platelets, and plasma. An increase or decrease in the amount of any of these components indicates the existence of a problem in the human system. A CBC test may be recommended by a physician to detect some specific ailment or as a routine check-up procedure. The main purpose is to ascertain that whatever is happening inside – in the cells, tissues, and organs, is happening smoothly.

Overall Health Status

Since a CBC test maps all the components of the blood, it means that it, in a way, gives us an overall view of the health of an individual. A person need not be sick to undergo this test. The procedure, in fact, is a smart way for people to know about their blood’s vitality, count levels and even come across possible points of weaknesses that can turn fatal at a later stage.

Useful in Blood Transfusion

CBC test is widely used as one of the main tools for determining the ability of an individual to undergo a blood transfusion. In addition to this, it also offers information about the blood type, Rh factor and other vital elements that are mapped before the blood transfusion process.

Screening for Disease

The test is highly useful in confirming or ruling out a medical condition. For instance, a platelet count can help indicate whether or not it’s in its normal range of not. For lesser or higher than usual platelets indicate chronic conditions.

Monitoring effects of Drugs on Blood

This is yet another area where a CBC test serves handy and useful. There are a broad range of drugs that are known for causing internal problems, if not taken in proper dosage. For mapping proper working of such drugs, this test is recommended. In the event of abnormalities detected in CBC report(s), either the dosage of the drugs are altered or are changed completely, to reduce damage.

Blood Cell Count

Each blood component count is essential to determine whether they are in their normal range or not. A deviation of any of these can or may cause the onset of many diseases, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis, etc.

Breast Cancer Test for Genetic: What are The Types of Blood Markers?

Breast cancers in women and have become very common nowadays. Though there is a host of factors that lead to breast cancer but the most common is the ‘Genetic Factor’. Researchers have witnessed that be it is breast cancer or ovarian cancer; heredity has a major role to play in this. Most of the inherited incidents of breast cancer are associated with two types of abnormal genes – Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA 1) and Breast Cancer Gene 2 (BRCA 2). Women who inherit a mutation in either of the genes from their parents are at an increased risk of developing cancer in the breasts. A breast cancer test for genetic involves blood test for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

For diagnosis, doctors usually order a special type of blood test known as Blood Marker Test. Protein and Circulating tumour cells are the two types of protein markers that are measured. Blood marker tests are performed before the treatment and help to diagnose breast cancer. It assesses whether the cancer is responding during and after the treatment. Breast cancer test cost can be expensive depending on the type of genetic test and involves minimal or no risk.

Types of Blood Markers

There are several types of breast cancer testing guidelines that doctors usually follow. Along with the guidelines, they also use various types of blood markers. The 5 most commonly used blood markers include –

  • CA 15.3 – This test is performed to examine Breast and Ovarian cancers.
  • TRU-QUANT and CA 27.29 – It is performed when the doctors become almost 90% sure that breast cancer is present.
  • CA 125 – This test helps to determine the presence of ovarian cancer, breast, and ovarian can recurrence.
  • CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) – It is a type of marker that detects the presence of colon, lungs and liver cancers. It also determines if the breast cancer cells have travelled to other parts of the body.
  • Circulating tumour cells – Circulating tumour cells break off from cancer and travel to the bloodstream. High circulating tumour cells counts indicate that the cancer cells are gradually spreading to other parts of the body.


If one has already suffered from this fatal disease and tends to develop BRCA mutation, it means that the patient is at a greater risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer in future. Some types of preventive measures that one should opt for are –

  • Performing preventive or prophylactic mastectomy or removal of both the breasts. This process reduces the risk of breast cancer to about 90%.
  • Performing preventive or prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy or removal of both the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Taking hormonal therapy medicines. These drugs lower the risk of breast cancer in women.

All You Need To Know About Serum Blood Test

Albumin is a protein produced by the liver that carries vital nutrients and hormones and circulates them to different organs and tissues of the body. This type of protein is extremely essential to maintain the growth and repair the tissues. If a person has low albumin content and suffers from various symptoms alike- fatigue, unexpected weight loss, swelling around eyes, stomach, legs, etc. it is highly suggested to get a Serum Albumin Test or Serum blood test done at the earliest. Every diagnostic center in Kolkata is highly equipped with all sorts of modern machines and equipment that help to churn out 100 percent accurate test results.

Why to perform a Serum blood test?

A serum blood test measures the amount of albumin present in the blood. An abnormal level of albumin indicates that the kidneys or the liver are not functioning properly. The test is used as part of an examination called liver panel and checks for the presence of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and pre-albumin in the blood. The test is ordered when the doctor suspects a particular health condition that is affecting the functioning of the liver.

How to prepare for the test?

There is no special preparation for a serum albumin test. However, it is important to consult with the doctor if one is under medications like anabolic steroids, insulin and growth hormones. The doctor might suggest to stop or change the dosage of the medicines before the test.

Serum blood test for pregnancy

Serum blood test for pregnancy measures the presence of chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg) hormone in the blood sample of the mother.

How are serum blood test results interpreted?

Serum blood test normal value ranges vary slightly among different laboratories. Typically, the value for serum blood test varies between 3.4to 5.4g/dl. The test usually comprises of a series of tests that evaluates the functioning of liver and kidneys. Therefore, a doctor looks at the entire test results, determine the underlying cause of the symptoms as mentioned earlier and then make the accurate diagnosis. The normal values of various components present in Serum blood test involve-

  • Creatinine- 0.8 to 1.3 mg/dl
  • Blood urea nitrogen- 8-21 mg/dl
  • Ferritin- 1300 ng/mL in men, 12-150 NG/ml in Women.
  • Glucose- 65-110 mg/dl.

A low level of albumin content in the blood indicates a number of serious health conditions such as- lover disease, inflammation, shock, malnutrition, Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, etc. If the serum blood test results show a low level of albumin content in the blood due to liver diseases, the doctor may order some additional tests to determine the particular type of liver diseases such as- hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular necrosis.