All You Need To Know About Serum Blood Test

Albumin is a protein produced by the liver that carries vital nutrients and hormones and circulates them to different organs and tissues of the body. This type of protein is extremely essential to maintain the growth and repair the tissues. If a person has low albumin content and suffers from various symptoms alike- fatigue, unexpected weight loss, swelling around eyes, stomach, legs, etc. it is highly suggested to get a Serum Albumin Test or Serum blood test done at the earliest. Every diagnostic center in Kolkata is highly equipped with all sorts of modern machines and equipment that help to churn out 100 percent accurate test results.

Why to perform a Serum blood test?

A serum blood test measures the amount of albumin present in the blood. An abnormal level of albumin indicates that the kidneys or the liver are not functioning properly. The test is used as part of an examination called liver panel and checks for the presence of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and pre-albumin in the blood. The test is ordered when the doctor suspects a particular health condition that is affecting the functioning of the liver.

How to prepare for the test?

There is no special preparation for a serum albumin test. However, it is important to consult with the doctor if one is under medications like anabolic steroids, insulin and growth hormones. The doctor might suggest to stop or change the dosage of the medicines before the test.

Serum blood test for pregnancy

Serum blood test for pregnancy measures the presence of chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg) hormone in the blood sample of the mother.

How are serum blood test results interpreted?

Serum blood test normal value ranges vary slightly among different laboratories. Typically, the value for serum blood test varies between 3.4to 5.4g/dl. The test usually comprises of a series of tests that evaluates the functioning of liver and kidneys. Therefore, a doctor looks at the entire test results, determine the underlying cause of the symptoms as mentioned earlier and then make the accurate diagnosis. The normal values of various components present in Serum blood test involve-

  • Creatinine- 0.8 to 1.3 mg/dl
  • Blood urea nitrogen- 8-21 mg/dl
  • Ferritin- 1300 ng/mL in men, 12-150 NG/ml in Women.
  • Glucose- 65-110 mg/dl.

A low level of albumin content in the blood indicates a number of serious health conditions such as- lover disease, inflammation, shock, malnutrition, Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, etc. If the serum blood test results show a low level of albumin content in the blood due to liver diseases, the doctor may order some additional tests to determine the particular type of liver diseases such as- hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular necrosis.

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Leukemia Test – Types, Symptoms and Tests Involved

Leukemia is a type of cancer that typically begins when the blood cells of the body turn hostile or malignant in nature. When an individual is detected with leukemia, his/her body’s bone marrow starts to produce abnormal white blood cells called the leukemia cells. These abnormal cells disrupt the normal functionality of the WBCs, grow at a much faster rate and outnumber the normal blood cells. This leads to the development of many serious problems in the body including anemia, bleeding and related infections. Abnormal leukemia cells, over the time, spread to other parts of the body and lead to failure of organs as well. A leukemia test aids in diagnosing the presence of malignancies and also the stage of cancer.

Types of Leukemia

Typically there are four main types of leukemia. These are as follows:-

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Apart from these, other or rather rarer types of leukemia include myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative disorders, and hairy cell leukemia.

Symptoms of Leukemia

Symptoms of leukemia vary from one person to another and also the type of leukemia one has developed. However, common signs and symptoms are as follows:-

  • Chills or fever
  • Persistent weakness and fatigue
  • Frequent or severe infections
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Swollen lymph nodes or spleen
  • Enlarged liver
  • Unexpected bleeding or bruising
  • Recurring nose bleeding
  • Appearing of tiny red spots on the skin
  • Excessive sweating especially at night
  • Tenderness or pain in the bones

Leukemia Test

Most physicians are able to detect leukemia with a regular or routine blood test even before the patient starts to witness its symptoms. However, there are cases wherein physicians may have to order a series of tests for checking the presence of the cancer type.

  • Physical examination – This involves looking for physical signs of leukemia such as swelling of the lymph nodes, enlarged liver, appearance of tiny red spots on the skin, etc.
  • Blood Test – This involves sending a sample of the patient’s blood to the laboratory for the detection of presence of malignancies, or abnormal WBCs or platelets therein.
  • Bone Marrow Test – Here, a sample of the bone marrow is extracted using a long, thin needle. The sample is then sent to the lab for biopsy and detection for existence of malignant cells there.

Leukemia test results are generally out for a physician’s analysis in about 24 hours from the time of submission of the testing sample to the laboratory.

Leukemia Test Online

Today, most pathology labs and diagnostic center in Jaipur and other cities across India offer the advantage of booking a leukemia test online. This enables the working class to keep pace with their help despite their busy life schedule. Leukemia test cost is minimal. But, its cost may vary from one pathology lab to another due to the use of different testing equipment and techniques.

Blood test and Urine test for Pregnancy

Missed your periods? Maybe it’s a sign that you’re pregnant. But how to be sure? Opt for a pregnancy test. A pregnancy test has been formulated by the medical science to confirm or deny pregnancy in a woman by checking the presence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hGC) in blood or urine. A type of hormone, hCG is produced immediately after an egg fertilizes and sticks to the walls of a woman’s uterus. Both, the blood and the urine test are ordered by medical centres and pathology labs in India.

Types of Pregnancy Tests

As stated above, primarily there are two kinds of tests that aid in confirming or ruling out pregnancy. These are as follows:-

  • Urine Test for Pregnancy

A urine test can be done at the comfort of your home with the help of readily available pregnancy testing kits. These kits come with instructions. To detail a bit, a urine test procedure for pregnancy must be done early in the morning as it’s suggest that the level of hCG in urine is highest at that time. Collect a small sample of your urine in a container and use the drop stick provided in the kit for pouring a few drops of urine onto the testing stip. A quick color change or appearance of strips can indicate a positive or negative results.

  • Blood test for Pregnancy

A blood test is done at a pathology lab or at your doctor’s office. For this test, a small amount of blood is drawn from one of the veins and collected in special blood sample tubes. The blood is then tested for the presence of hCG hormone that’s an indicator of the onset of pregnancy.

Accuracy of Pregnancy Tests

As a general fact, you must test for pregnancy after at least one week post a missed period. Results are also said to be more accurate when done early (first thing) in the morning, when your urine is more concentrated. A urine test for pregnancy promises 99% accurate results. While on the other hand, blood tests are even more precise.

How accurate your urine test is depends on many factors:-

  • Did you follow the instructions mentioned on the urine test kit carefully?
  • When do you ovulate in your menstrual cycle and how soon implantation occurs in your uterus
  • How soon you test for pregnancy after a missed period
  • The sensitivity of the pregnancy urine test

Each of these play a vital role in determining the case and flourishing the news of pregnancy. If you think you are pregnant, its best to take a test at your doctor’s clinic under his/her guidance as the chances of making mistakes minimalizes.

Karyotype Test – An Effective Chromosome Analysis Tool

A karyotype test is a simple blood test done to examine the shape, size and number of chromosomes present in the cells of the blood. Abnormal positioning, extra or missing chromosomes can widely affect the growth, development and functionality of many body parts. Karyotypes are typically extracted from blood cells, fetal skin cells or the bone marrow cells.

Why is karyotype test done?

The reasons behind karyotyping are plethora. Some of them are as follows:-

  • To check whether the chromosomes of an individual have a change which can be passed to his/her child.
  • To check whether a defect in a chromosome is prevent a woman from conceiving.
  • To check for the presence of a chromosome defect in a fetus
  • To check for the reasons behind defect in a baby’s growth and development.
  • Determine the right treatment for certain types of cancers.
  • For identifying the sex of an unborn baby.

How is it done?

A karyotype test can be done using almost any cell or tissue of the body. However, in most cases, a sample of blood is taken from the vein for testing. In case of pregnancy, a sample of amniotic fluid or that of placenta may be extracted for examination.

Blood Sample from Vein – In this case, a sample of blood is drawn from one of the veins of the body, usually those on the arm. The sample is collected in special tubes which are then sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

Cell Sample from Fetus – In this type of karyotype test, a few cells are extracted from the fetus with the help of amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling method. These are then sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

Cell Sample from Bone Marrow – A bone marrow biopsy is conducted to extract a sample of bone marrow for karyotype testing. Similar to the above two methods, the sample is sent to the laboratory for in-depth examination and evaluation.

How to Interpret the Results?

Interpreting karyotype test results is simple and easy. In case of normal results, the following may be noted:-

  • Females – 44 autosomes along with 2 sex chromosomes marked as XX. A total of 46 chromosomes (XX)
  • Males – 44 autosomes along with 2 sex chromosomes marked as XY. A total of 46 chromosomes (XY)

Any deviation from the above mentioned normal range indicated the presence of abnormality. This means:-

  • More than or less than 46 chromosomes.
  • Abnormal shape or size of one of more than one chromosome
  • A pair of chromosome is either broken or separated in an inappropriate manner.
  • The presence of some kind of genetic syndrome or condition such as
    • Down syndrome
    • Klinefelter syndrome
    • Philadelphia chromosome
    • Trisomy 18
    • Turner syndrome

In addition to this, chemotherapy can cause the chromosome to break down which in turn may affect the result of a karyotype test.

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) – Causes and Herpes Test and Result

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a type of infection that causes Herpes. It tends to appear in various parts of the body, particularly in the genital or mouth region. Primarily, there are two types of herpes simplex virus- HSV-1, also known as Oral Herpes, and cause cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth or on the faces- 2 is responsible for outbreaks in the genital area such as on or around the vagina or penis.

A common test known as Herpes test is done to determine the presence of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV).

Causes of Herpes Simplex

Herpes Simplex is a communicable virus that can be passed from person to person through direct contacts- 1 cause due to general interactions with the infected person such as- eating from the same utensils, sharing lip balm or kissing. HSV- 2 Infection can spread from sexual contact with an infected person. In this case, the level of risk gets heightens when a person participates in sexual behaviour without using protection, such as condoms.

Why is Herpes test done?

The test is done to-

  • Find out which types of virus (HSV-1 or HSV-2) is basically causing sores,
  • Find out whether the new-born is at a risk of developing Herpes or not, whose mother has suffered previously from Genital Herpes.

How is Herpes Simplex diagnosed?

Herpes is diagnosed with the help of physical examinations. The common herpes tests include taking samples of spinal fluid, blood, tears, etc. Some of the primary herpes tests include-

Herpes Viral Culture– In this, the fluid is taken from a fresh sore and is added to certain cells that are used to grow HSV. The culture report comes negative if no virus infects the cells.

Herpes Virus Antigen Detection Test – It helps to find markers called antigens on the surface of the infected cells.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Test- PCT test can be experimented on the cells or the sore, blood or on spinal fluid. This test is used to find the difference between HSV-1 and HSV -2 virus as well.

Antibody Test – Antibody Test is done to find antibodies that are made by the immune system of the body to fight Herpes infection.

Herpes Test Results

Normal Result- A normal result should be negative. In this, no viral antigens or DNA are found, and no herpes antibodies are present in the blood.

Abnormal Result- An abnormal result shows positive HSV virus also grows in the viral culture test and HSV antigens or DNA are present in the blood.

What is Dengue Fever Test and its Implications?

A development in society and advancements have definitely led to the birth of several diseases. It is true that nowadays the attrition rate of health has indeed increased and there has been more number of attacks on health. Some are the lifestyle diseases, some are related to airborne diseases and so on. One such section is mosquito transmitted disease. Yes, it is true that dengue is one such ailment that is caused with the process of mosquito biting.

Typically dengue fever is definitely something which succumbs its prey within its reach very easily. Hence, it is always important that a dengue fever test must be done accordingly and effectively. It is also true that this is a kind of test which never provides any kind of accurate result. This is in particular effective when the proper antigen is being diagnosed. Yes, the symptoms of dengue is very common to that of normal flu and must be done with complete expertise to get authentic result.

If we go about with effective measures, then it can be said that dengue fever test is a simple blood test, which detects the accurate virus present and accordingly heads one towards the proper treatment. If we sit down with the symptoms of dengue fever, then we will be able to list the following:

  1. Sudden high fever
  2. Severe headaches
  3. Pain behind the eyes
  4. Severe joint and muscle pain
  5. Immense amount of Fatigue.
  6. Some Nausea.
  7. Intense Vomiting.
  8. Skin rash, which appears mostly two to five days after the onset of fever

Having a look at all the symptoms it can be concluded that, dengue fever test is the process to recognize all these symptoms effectively and accordingly get everything done in an accurate manner. The treatment process hence forth entire depends on this particular genre. So make your move today and get hold of the best treatment process with an early diagnosis of the same.

The Complete Synopsis of Blood Test CPK

What is Creatine Phosphokinase Test?

The creatine phosphokinase test is a kind of test that is supposed to measure the perfect amount of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) present in the blood. This definitely one such test, which is also known as a creatine kinase test or blood test CPK.

The Creatine phosphokinase is hence a specific enzyme that is found primarily in the heart, and even in the skeletal muscle, and even the brain tissues.

The creatine phosphokinase test is hence performed to completely assess the damage to tissue in the brain, the muscle tissue, or even our heart. When tissue is indeed damaged, the creatine phosphokinase outflows from the tissue into the blood.

The test is used to evaluate the following conditions:

  1. A severe heart attack
  2. At times some chest pain
  3. Any kind of muscular damage
  4. Some early dermatomyositis, which is also muscle and the connective tissue disease
  5. Polymyositis or the inflammation of the muscles
  6. The muscular dystrophy

What is the process to conduct blood test CPK?

The creatine phosphokinase level is usually considered to measure the amount of creatine phosphokinase. This is one of the important elements in a blood sample that is taken by a healthcare professional. The blood test is quite significant and involves the following steps:

  1. The health care professionals will first wrap an elastic band around your upper arm in order to stop the flow of blood. This as well causes all the veins in your arm to become visible, and hence the needle can be more easily inserted.
  2. Spirit or alcohol is used to clean the site of your skin where the needle will indeed be inserted.
  3. The needle is therefore inserted into your vein. This causes some brief pinching or even at times stinging sensation.
  4. They will always attach a tube to the needle in order to collect blood. Sometimes, even more than one tube is required.
  5. The elastic band is then removed after enough blood has been collected.

What are the risks associated with the blood test CPK?

When you have some high levels of creatine phosphokinase present in your blood, it is always considered to be an abnormal result. In fact all the high levels of the enzyme may actually occur due to the following conditions:

  1. Heart attack
  2. The pericarditis after suffering from a heart attack
  3. Polymyositis or even dermatomyositis
  4. The inflammation of heart muscle
  5. The muscular dystrophy
  6. The convulsions